Όλα τα άρθρα με ετικέτα: democracy

Πρότυπα και κοινωνικός μετασχηματισμός

Aναμφισβήτητα ο μετασχηματισμός της κοινωνίας σε κάτι (ενδεχομένως) καλύτερο, αποτελεί ένα από τα πιο ενδιαφέροντα, αλλά και σύνθετα ζητήματα. Ο «καλύτερος κόσμος» από τον Τ. Λοκ μέχρι τον Κ. Μαρξ και από τον Α. Σμιθ μέχρι τον Κ. Καστοριάδη, ήταν και παραμένει ένα από τα μεγάλα ζητούμενα. Σε γενικές γραμμές υπάρχει η άποψη ότι ο μετασχηματισμός της κοινωνίας είναι πάντα μερικός και γίνεται μόνο όταν κάποια νέα πρότυπα και αντιλήψεις περί ανθρώπου ή κοινωνικής, οικονομικής, θρησκευτικής κ.λπ. δομής, αντικαταστήσουν κατά έναν ικανό βαθμό τα παλιά. Από την άλλη, υπάρχει η άποψη ότι όποιος ή όποιοι έχουν την κοινωνική ισχύ, μπορούν να επιβάλουν τα νέα και δικά τους πρότυπα ως κυρίαρχα αντικαθιστώντας τα παλαιά. Αν λοιπόν κανείς τελικά αποκτήσει την απαραίτητη κοινωνική ισχύ (χρησιμοποιώντας την οικονομική, πολιτική, στρατιωτική, αριθμητική ισχύ του), μπορεί να επιβάλλει και τα πρότυπά του ως δίκαια, αυτονόητα, γενικώς αποδεκτά και ηθικά.  Προφανώς οι παραπάνω απόψεις εξετάζουν τα αίτια του μετασχηματισμού σε διαφορετική χρονική στιγμή και από διαφορετική σκοπιά. Στην πρώτη περίπτωση ο μετασχηματισμός προκύπτει ως κάτι νομοτελειακό και αυθόρμητο ή κάτι αόριστο …

Murray Bookchin – The Idea of Citizenship (excerpt)

the Athenian citizen was not a corporate being in our usual meaning of the term. Most present-day discussions of the Athenian’s lack of individuality and the polis’s tendency to subserve his personality to an overbeating collectivity are weighted down by Eurocentrically neurotic images of the individual as such. The modern identification of individuality with egotism and personality with neurosis has been overindulged under the rubric of ”modernity” with an arrogance that bears comparison only with the conceited claims of psychoanalysis and psychohistory to explain the human drama in all its aspects. The human beings can be individuated in different ways – some as highly social and political beings, others as private and self-indulgent beings, still others as combinations and permutations of both -is an alien to the claims of modernity as it is to the admirers of Gemeinschaft, the stagnant folk community based on kinship and organismic relationships.

Niccolò Machiavelli – Excerpts on principality and republic

Where equality exists, it is impossible to set up a Principality, and, where it does not exist, impossible to set up a Republic […] Let, then, a republic be constituted where there exists or can be brought into being, notable equality; and a regime of the opposite type, i.e. a principality, where there is notable inequality. Otherwise what is done will lack proportion and will be of but short duration […].

The Greek December Revolt and its Current Relevance

The Greek uprising of 2008 (which started after the assassination of the 15 year old schoolboy, Alexandros Grigoropoulos, in Exarcheia by a police officer) could undoubtedly be considered a milestone in contemporary Greek history, as a par excellence populist event that marked not only the political course of the country but also shaped the entire European socio-political landscape. Unlike other urban revolts that took place in the European continent during the past two decades – such as the Paris uprising (2005) and the London riots (2011) – the December unrest carries a peculiar message…

European integration: knowing the value of everything but the price of nothing!

European integration has failed not only to eliminate cultural divisions, but also to unite the peoples of Europe themselves; as we have clearly witnessed within the past five years, European nations have massively begun to turn one against another, especially the powerful countries of the North against the devastated South, since national antagonisms started to penetrate the economic and political sphere. But what practically matters right now is the rapprochement of some key concepts, in order to shift to a decentralized paradigm of democratic governance, focusing on the role of communal identity and municipality, and above all on the project of de-growth…

Political apathy as a symptom

Political apathy is a phenomenon that preoccupied (and still preoccupies) many intellectuals and social scientists. It is a pathological symptom of a society that loses its creativity and sets the foundations of its decay. If we attempt to give a definition of political apathy, we would say that it is the condition where human beings cease to function as active political animals, they cease to consider themselves able to take responsibility for making decisions that determine their lives, finally cease to become exponents of a different social institution, ignoring any sense of autonomy [1]. Instead they adopt a passive stance characterized by mass behaviour, conformity, introversion and excessive individualism or as Cornelius Castoriadis (2001) says…